The three elements of art that I believe to be most important of those at work here are line, color, and space. Tolkien relies primarily on lines, whether solid, dotted, straight, or squiggly, to creates forms in this drawing. The polar bear, mountains, clouds, and sunlight are all simple lines. Tolkien then uses color to help differentiate between lines and what they represent. Shadows tend to be green and black, while light is indicated by red. Lastly, space is another way in which Tolkien creates forms. The spaces between lines grows wider as the mountains get steeper, and come together where the slope lessens.
The three principles of art that I saw in this drawing are balance, pattern, and emphasis. The piece is almost symmetrical, with minor differences on either side. The objects and color oppose each other fairly equally. Tolkien's use of pattern is highly evident in the multitude of lines present in the drawing. The lines, as well as color, lead the eye directly to several focal points on which he puts emphasis. The picture is split into two sections. The focus of the top section is Karhu the polar bear. There are very few objects in this section, and Karhu stands at the center. He is also the only vertical object there. In the lower section, the lines of the mountains and sun rays all lead the eye to the sun. The red color of the sun also attracts attention. This was one of Tolkien's favorite things to do. When he designed the cover of The Hobbit, he made Smaug and the moon the same shade of red. This helped them to stand out among all of the cool colors. The publishers, however, did not include these elements and left them both white.